Foundation, Concrete and Earthquake Engineering

Shadow Zone of Earthquake

In 1910 a seismic wave shadow zone was discovered while measuring how P and S waves travel through the earth and out the other side,. The shadow zone is the area of the earth from angular distances of 104 to 140 degrees from a given earthquake that does not receive any direct P waves. The shadow zone results from S waves being stopped entirely by the liquid core and P waves being bent (refracted) by the liquid core.

From the lack of S waves and a great slowing of the P wave velocity (by about 40%) it was deduced that the outer core is made of liquid. The shadow zone also defined the diameter of the core.

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