Foundation, Concrete and Earthquake Engineering


Natural deposits formed prior to the Pleistocene glaciation are generally referred to as rocks. The strength of these formations can vary such that some of them are classified as soils. These include many of the deposits in the south east of the United Kingdom, such as the London clay and the Gault clay. Most of the UK has been affected by glaciation which has resulted in extensive drift deposits of till (boulder clay), laminated clays and other glacial materials as far south as London. Periglacial and lacustrine deposits are also found in plains and valleys together with estuarine and coastal muds and silts. Peat and other organic soils are found throughout the upland region.
Fig: Lacustrine deposits
Drift deposits in the upland region are predominantly firm and stiff to hard gravelly sandy clay containing boulders, lenses of sand and gravel. The more recent deposits comprise softer organic and alluvial clays and loose sands.

Periglacial Deposits
Landslides in the UK

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